• Hydro-mechanical properties and durability of earth blocks: influence of different stabilisers and compaction levels
    M. Mahdad and A. Benidir
    This paper focuses on experimental studies to assess the effect of mechanical and chemical stabilisation on compressed earth blocks strength and durability. ... + READ MORE
    This paper focuses on experimental studies to assess the effect of mechanical and chemical stabilisation on compressed earth blocks strength and durability. The relevance to the performance of compressed and stabilised blocks by moderate portions (less than 10%) of stabilisers such as cement and/or lime, cement and resin has been examined. The experiment consists of testing the stabilised and compressed earth blocks in order to appreciate the compressive strength, the impact of compactive effort, water absorption and finally the resistance against the surface erosion. Additionally, treated walls were exposed to climatic conditions in the aim to relate their durability. The results of the present investigation show that progressive addition of the different stabilisers substantially increases the compressive strength and reduces the water absorption of earth blocks. Furthermore, the improvement of the mechanical and hydrous properties of the compressed earth blocks is stated by rising gradually the moulding pressure. Moreover, under Mediterranean climate exposure, the diagnostic reveals that the walls built with cement or mixed additive are less affected by the damage. In return, the defects including surface roughening, pitting, cracking and erosion concern the un-stabilised or lime stabilised earth block walls. - COLLAPSE
    June 2018
  • Analysis of service life of cracked marine concrete considering global warming and Bruun rule
    Xiao-Yong Wang, Hanseung Lee and Seungjun Kwon
    The cracks in concrete structures will accelerate the ingression of chloride ions. And due to global warming, chloride diffusivity and rate of ... + READ MORE
    The cracks in concrete structures will accelerate the ingression of chloride ions. And due to global warming, chloride diffusivity and rate of chloride penetration will also increase. Previous studies mainly focus on the effect of global warming on chloride ingress, but ignore the changing of sea level and surface chloride concentration. This study presents a numerical procedure to analysis the service life of cracked concrete considering global warming and sea level rise. First, the equivalent chloride diffusion coefficient of cracked concrete is determined considering sound zone and cracked zone. The influence of crack width and crack interspace on equivalent chloride diffusivity is clarified. The effect of sea level rise on surface chloride concentration is described using Bruun rule. Second, based on probability method, the service life of cracked concrete is predicted. The analysis results show that the effect of sea level rise on service life is comparable with that of global warming. The reduction ratio of service life is almost proportional to previous service life of concrete. When the previous service life is 50 years, after considering temperature rise and sea level rise, the reduction of previous service life is about 6%. - COLLAPSE
    June 2018
  • Quantification of phase changes and hydration behavior studies of OPC-43 grade cement through powder X-RAY diffraction
    Diptendu Roy and Anil Kumar Misra
    The hydration reaction in its true nature is very complex and this study aims to understand hydration of OPC-43 grade (IS 8112-1969) ... + READ MORE
    The hydration reaction in its true nature is very complex and this study aims to understand hydration of OPC-43 grade (IS 8112-1969) using powder X-Ray diffraction. The Powdered X-Ray diffraction is an effective tool used in this paper to quantify the crystalline phases present in cement and the changes in these crystalline phases at different age of hydration starting from initial-set, final-set, 1 day, 3 days, 7 days, 14 days, 28 days and 56 days of curing. The research work presents the procedure involved in making the cement slurry, sample preparation for powder x-ray diffraction, identification of cement minerals such as alite, belite, aluminate and ferrite and their modification to CSH, CH, AFm and AFt phases. Minor phases present in cement are also quantified. The results indicate that the cement has high lime saturation factor, alumina ratio and silica ratio. The magnesia content in the cement is about half of the maximum value and the SO3 content in the cement exceeded the value stipulated in IS 8112-1969. The maximum change in hydration products was obtained during the initial setting period after that the change became steady. The total hydrated products formed, increases with age up to 7 days. After 7 days, there was a decline in the hydrated products up to 21st day due to the decrease in Afm phase and decrease in CSH phase content. The rate of consumption of cement minerals and rate of formation of hydration products followed the same pattern with age. The maximum rise in compressive strength of cement mortar was observed during the period between 1 day to 3 days of curing. The increase in strength of cement is concurrent with increase in hydration product in the same time interval. The outcome of this study will help to understand the processes associated with strength gain, soundness and durability of OPC-43 utilised to various constructions and aid in decision making process related with fresh and hardened concrete. - COLLAPSE
    June 2018
  • A review of the philippine green building rating system, BERDE in comparison with G-SEED and LEED
    Rudiliza Culiao, Sungho Tae and Rakhyun Kim
    Different countries create their own green building rating system to be in line with sustainable development as a response to the urgent ... + READ MORE
    Different countries create their own green building rating system to be in line with sustainable development as a response to the urgent call for solution for Climate Change and degradation of the environment due to rapid population growth and economic development. This study conducts a critical review on the Philippine national voluntary green building rating system, BERDE, in comparison with South Korea’s national voluntary green building rating system, G-SEED and U.S. rating system LEED. Their categories, building types assessed, and assessment methods were compared side by side to seek better practice(s) for green building rating assessment for Philippine green building projects. - COLLAPSE
    June 2018
Journal Informaiton Agriculture and Life Sciences Research Institute International Journal of Sustainable Building Technology and Urban Development
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