General Article

International Journal of Sustainable Building Technology and Urban Development. June 2020. 94-111
https://doi.org/10.22712/susb.20200008

# MAIN

• Introduction

• Literature Review

•   Influencing factors of students’ performance in school

•   Sustainable strategies and energy-saved technologies for public school

• Case descriptions and research methods

•   Overview of Isaac Dickson Elementary School

•   Sustainable strategies and energy saving technologies of Isaac Dickson Elementary School Sustainable sites

•   Water efficiency: rainwater harvesting system

•   Energy efficiency and saving

•   Sustainable materials

•   Indoor air quality

•   Experiential learning

•   Detailed case study: energy saving & solar PV

• Conclusion

Introduction

Under the limited resources and energy, the first primary approach of sustainable building is to save energy consumption in the building. In order to reduce energy use in the building sector, it is necessary to adopt green (sustainable) building technologies and strategies to save energy consumption in the building and minimize any negative environmental and social problems in the built environment. It is an inevitable trend for the energy-saving transformation and sustainability in the built environment. The current situation of traditional campus architecture is high consumption of resources and energy, and the phenomenon of waste is common. Thus, this study addresses on energy saving strategies and technologies on educational facilities. The sustainable design and construction and good operation of a large number of sustainable schools show that sustainable schools can significantly reduce the consumption of energy and improve the learning environment that can enhance students’ health and wellbeing. In addition, it will educate students to learn the importance of sustainable development and environment.

This study aims to identify main strategies and technologies for a sustainable school. Also, the case study research method is adopted to explore the effective energy saving technologies and sustainable strategies of the sustainable school. The reminder of the study is organized as follows; First, extensive literature reviews are conducted to examine the existing energy saving strategies. Second, limitations of the existing strategies are identified based on the reviews. Then, a case study is carried out to understand the effect of energy saving strategies and sustainable design on energy reduction and human safety. Finally, sustainable strategies and applicable technologies are proposed. This study is expected to support decision-makings by building managers in determining effective strategies and technologies to reduce energy consumption in buildings.

Literature Review

The literature review is derived condition of school facilities and indoor environmental factors affecting students’ health and performance and identified sustainable school design strategies and building energy-saved technologies.

Influencing factors of students’ performance in school

Numerous studies have supported that physical condition of the school is significantly correlated with student learning and academic performance & outcomes. The condition of school facilities has a significant impact on student performance and teacher effectiveness. In particular, research demonstrates that comfortable classroom temperature and noise levels are critical to efficient student performance [1]. Rosen and Richardson (1999) and Ahn, et al. (2011) demonstrated that indoor air quality and the green building is strongly related to student’ learning and academic attendance rate [2, 3]. Kuller and Lindsten (1992) studied that amount of natural daylight and fluorescent light in classroom could influence on students’ attendance sociability, and sick leave use [4]. Wargocki and Wyon (2007) also explained that outdoor air supply rate and classroom temperature is related to the speed at which student competed various mathematics, reading comprehension, and proof reading task [5]. V. Durán -Narucki (2008) expounded that in run-down school facilities students attended less days on average and therefore had lower grades in ELA and Math standardized tests [6]. Elinor Simons et al. (2010) based on the survey of school construction conditions in northern New York, it was found that absenteeism in all schools was related to some problems of mold, moisture, ventilation and pests [7]. Berman JD et al. (2018) demonstrated that poor quality buildings are associated with lower student reading and math scores, while chronic absenteeism increases [8]. Pawel Wargocki et al. (2013) obtained the results through experiments that children's mathematics and language performance were affected by outdoor air supply and indoor air temperature [9]. Zs.Bako Biro et al. (2012) proved that compared with the low ventilation condition, under the high ventilation rate, students' response to selection reaction, color word alert, picture memory and word recognition was significantly faster and more accurate [10]. Turunen M et al. (2014) indicated that daily manufacture / poor IAQ, high indoor temperature, dust or dirtiness, and noise caused the students’ symptoms of nasal congestion, fatigue, headache, wheezing, cough and fever [11]. Lilin Xiong et al. (2018) showed that even the perception, memory, problem-solving, and attention of adults between the ages of 20 and 25 can be influenced by temperature, noise, and illumination [12]. From the previous studies, the literature review highlights the potential importance of developing school facilities that incorporate sustainable strategies that positively affect a school’s physical condition, primarily lighting/daylighting and indoor air quality strategies, in order to provide a high quality indoor environment for students and teachers. An additional benefit of such a facility is reduction in energy and water utility bills and mitigation of adverse environmental impacts. Increasing energy performance through energy efficiency measures can not only save energy and money, but also improve the indoor air and comfort in school buildings [13]. Creating healthy indoor air quality in schools to promote a healthy learning environment at school to reduce absenteeism, improve test scores and enhance student and staff productivity.

Sustainable strategies and energy-saved technologies for public school

##### Table 6.
Solar PV energy generation projection
 Month Solar Thermal Btu PV kWh Btu 1 2,795,349 37,803 128,983,836 2 3,309,440 42,874 146,286,088 3 4,777,708 63,299 215,976,188 4 5,776,791 70,895 241,893,740 5 6,437,098 75,793 258,605,716 6 6,498,890 76,498 261,011,176 7 6,425,961 73,919 252,211,628 8 5,869,119 69,735 237,935,820 9 4,806,807 56,466 192,661,992 10 4,198,592 54,350 185,442,200 11 2,920,728 38,647 131,863,564 12 2,483,517 32,756 111,763,472 Sum 56,300,000 693,035 2,364,635,420

Conclusion

Based on the comprehensive understanding of building sustainability, this study mainly discussed the sustainable strategies and energy-saving technologies applicable to school buildings. In this study, the actual project Isaac Dickson Elementary School（IDES）was used as an example to discuss the economy of sustainable primary school from the perspective of energy consumption. As a result, case study showed that sustainable schools not only can save costs as much as possible but also provide healthy learning and teaching environment for students and staff.

In the future study, additional experiments should be conducted based on various types of buildings in order to validate the economic benefit analysis of the buildings. This study contributes to the literatures on building energy saving and strategy by presenting the life-cycle cost depending on the energy consumption of educational facility. Also, it is expected that this study can be used as a basis of selecting energy strategies and technologies for reducing energy consumption. However, this study only analyzes the energy cost-effectiveness of the case building’s sustainable energy-saving technology, which is a small part of the sustainable building economic benefit analysis. The environmental and social benefits of sustainable building are still worth exploring.

## Acknowledgements

This work was supported by the Korea Institute of Energy Technology Evaluation and Planning (KETEP) and the Ministry of Trade, Industry & Energy (MOTIE) of the Republic of Korea (No. 20172010000370).

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